Niels O. Ellen van Zanten. Hardbound — Available Buy now. Above and Beyond the Segments presents a unique collection of experimental linguistic and phonetic research. Mainly, it deals with the experimental approach to prosodic, and more specifically melodic, aspects of speech. But it also treats segmental phonetics and phonology, second language learning, semantics and related topics.
These all testify the enormous diversity of language and speech in the world. This book is of special interest to linguists working on prosodic aspects of speech in general and to those studying non-Western languages in particular.
Above and beyond the segments : experimental linguistics and phonetics - Ghent University Library
Whose voice is that? Challenges in forensic phonetics. Pitch accent placement in Dutch as a second language: An exploratory investigation. Meaningful grammar is binary, local, anti-symmetric, recursive and incomplete. How prosody is both mandatory and optional. The effect of pause insertion on the intelligibility of Danish among Swedes. Information status and L2 prosody: A study of reference maintenance in Chinese learners of Dutch. Does boundary tone production in whispered speech depend on its bearer? Exploring a case of tonal crowding in whisper. The primacy of the weak in Carib prosody.
The effects of age and level of education on the ability of adult native speakers of Dutch to segment speech into words. Doing grammatical semantics as if it were phonetics.
Phonetic aspects of polar questions in Sienese: An experimental approach. Etymological sub-lexicons constrain the graphematic solution space.
Above and Beyond the Segments: Experimental linguistics and phonetics
Do speakers try to distract attention from their speech errors? The prosody of self-repairs. Field notes from a phonetician on Tundra Yukaghir orthography. Cross-regional differences in the perception of fricative devoicing. Evidence for three-level vowel length in Ageer Dinka. Stella Gryllia investigates a question bias for a negative answer in instances of questions with polarity items. ACC that expose. The findings showed that in the case of positive polar question non-emphatic NPIs, there is a bias for positive answers.
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To investigate how proficiency in the L2 accounts for the production of L1 tonal patterns, a production experiment has been conducted. Eight native speakers of Chinese with no previous knowledge of Dutch and nine Chinese L2 speakers of Dutch three intermediate and five advanced learners of Dutch participated in their study.
Above and beyond the segments : experimental linguistics and phonetics
Chinese speakers with no previous exposure to Dutch did not produce the appropriate tonal patterns whereas intermediate and advanced speakers of Dutch displayed significant improvement in their productions. An important observation has been that the intermediate learners employed primarily tonal cues but failed to employ duration whereas advanced learners employed both. Even though voicing is absent in whispered speech, listeners perceive prosodic differences.
The study predicted that where prosodic effects do not coincide, speakers would show more acoustic differences between statements and questions. There were two speech acts: statements and questions. Ten speakers of American English participated in the study. The vowels in wS were longer than in Sw words. The findings showed that intensity, F2, and the power of F1 and F2 were significantly higher in questions than in statements.
Berend Hoff recounts a field research he conducted during the s in Cornelis Kondre, a village in Western Surinam and provides first evidence about the prosodic structure of the Cornelis Kondre dialect. Jan H. Hulstijn and Sible Andringa examine two hypotheses with respect to the ability of adult native speakers of Dutch to segment speech into words. The first hypothesis suggests that all adult L1 speakers both correctly and quickly comprehend and produce isolated utterances consisting of high-frequency lexical phrases and high-frequency morphosyntactic structures zero hypothesis.
The second hypothesis claims that, depending on how they practice their language skills, people after the age of 27 may vary in they way they process linguistic information alternative hypothesis. To test these hypotheses, the authors designed a Segmentation Task, which consisted of two parts: a a Count Task and b a Dictation Task. In the Count Task, the participants had to enter the number of words they thought they had heard from played back utterances.
In the Dictation Task, participants heard the same utterances but they had to type the words as in a dictation. Some of the findings support the Second hypothesis that younger vs. Therefore, the results do not conclusively reject the first hypothesis. The author suggests that the graphemic solution space opens the possibility of uncovering systematic aspects of phonographic writing and relates the issue with the sub-lexicons, which exist in a language.
Moreover, Neigh proposes that the Van Heuven, Neijt, and Hizelendoorn filter approach accounts the ways words are assigned to sub-lexicons. Early detected errors had shorter durations, higher intensity, pitch and subjective loudness that those from the corresponding reparandums.
In G. As for the long vs. To identify the phonetic cues listeners employ for categorizing fricatives and to reveal cross-regional differences, the authors conducted a speeded categorization task performed by sixty native speakers of Dutch from three different areas: Groningen, South-Holland, and West-Flanders. The results showed that all speakers employed periodicity to identify fricatives whereas duration played a minor role. Nevertheless, they displayed significant cross-regional differences in the way they employed periodicity. To examine whether the four grades of morphological quantity are mapped onto three vowel length distinctions, Remijsen conducted an acoustic experimental study.
Toni Rietveld and Niels O. Schiller investigate the role of phonetic information in signalling syllable structure in Dutch. The results showed that listeners cannot use information about a designated consonant that follows a vowel when it does not co-articulate with it. Therefore, they have to wait until the whole information becomes available.follow
Above And Beyond The Segments Experimental Linguistics And Phonetics 2014
Scholz and Chen examine the effects of prosodic structure, information status, and co-articulation on the F0 realization of rising and falling tones. Their results showed that F0 slopes were steeper in compatible than in conflicting contexts. The authors argue that this finding suggests that adjacent tones co-articulate more in conflicting contexts that in non-conflicting contexts. The prosodic domain had no dominant effects on the amount of tonal co-articulation of the target syllables.
Another important finding was the different effects of prominence depending on prosodic headedness and on prominence manifesting focus. Dick Smakman and Thomas de France examine the effects of English pronunciation training on Dutch speakers. The authors measured the first two formants of vowels produced by Dutch speakers before and after training and before and after a course designed to better their RP English pronunciation. However, the pronunciation of a small number of learners did not improve but instead had regressed.
Chaoju Tang investigates the use of Chongqing dialect in China.
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Specifically, the author provides evidence from questionnaires out of that were completed by young and old participants, namely participants under 30 and participants over A number of randomly selected participants were also interviewed. The results of the study suggest that a the age of the speaker, b the communicative goal, and c the interaction between age and urban place of residence affect the use of Chongqing.
Alice Turk reviews research about the effects of phrasal stress on different stretches of speech e. Phrasal stress results in a phenomenon known as accentual lengthening, lengthening related to phrasal stress, and focus-related lengthening. Turk evaluates two hypotheses about accentual lengthening: a the continuous domain hypothesis, i. Disagreements about the exact domain of accentual lengthening — such as spill over effects and anticipatory effects, effects of different magnitudes on different syllables, inter-speaker variation, and non-lengthened syllables within the designated domain of lengthening — cast doubt on the continuous domain hypothesis.
These issues give rise to the multiple optional site hypothesis, which according to Turk can account for all these issues. Turk concludes that the multiple optional site hypothesis provides a better account of the existing data. Moreover, he suggests that this proposal can account for voicing phenomena in Dutch, e. Jeroen van de Weijer examines the status of affricates in English phonotactics. Specifically, de Weijer explores the phonotactic restrictions imposed on affricatives and suggests that affricates function as a natural class. Moreover, by providing evidence from Pengo, a Dravidian language spoken in south central India and Cimbrian German spoken in northeastern Italy, the author proposes that affricates constitute a natural class.
Most of the works report production and perception experiments and test several experimental hypotheses.