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Add to Wishlist Add to Wishlist. It is for the first time that a book of this magnitude covering the entire subject of volume and capacity measurements has hit the market. The strong point of the book is its more than tables containing various corrections, factors, and conversions to compensate for various influence parameters.

The most recent available data has been used in respect of density of water and mercury. Latest temperature scale namely, ITS 90 has been used. In addition to measures on product and process innovation, some companies overlay specific improvement goals for their existing processes. For example, Analog Devices, a Massachusetts-based manufacturer of specialized semiconductors, expects managers to improve their customer and internal business process performance continuously.

The company estimates specific rates of improvement for on-time delivery, cycle time, defect rate, and yield. These targets emphasize the role for continuous improvement in customer satisfaction and internal business processes. Typical financial goals have to do with profitability, growth, and shareholder value. ECI stated its financial goals simply: to survive, to succeed, and to prosper.


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Survival was measured by cash flow, success by quarterly sales growth and operating income by division, and prosperity by increased market share by segment and return on equity. Should they pay attention to short-term financial measures like quarterly sales and operating income? Many have criticized financial measures because of their well-documented inadequacies, their backward-looking focus, and their inability to reflect contemporary value-creating actions. Shareholder value analysis SVA , which forecasts future cash flows and discounts them back to a rough estimate of current value, is an attempt to make financial analysis more forward looking.

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But SVA still is based on cash flow rather than on the activities and processes that drive cash flow. Some critics go much further in their indictment of financial measures. They argue that the terms of competition have changed and that traditional financial measures do not improve customer satisfaction, quality, cycle time, and employee motivation. In their view, financial performance is the result of operational actions, and financial success should be the logical consequence of doing the fundamentals well. In other words, companies should stop navigating by financial measures. By making fundamental improvements in their operations, the financial numbers will take care of themselves, the argument goes.

Assertions that financial measures are unnecessary are incorrect for at least two reasons. Let us demonstrate rather than argue this point. In the s, a chemicals company became committed to a total quality management program and began to make extensive measurements of employee participation, statistical process control, and key quality indicators. Using computerized controls and remote data entry systems, the plant monitored more than 30, observations of its production processes every four hours.

The department managers and operating personnel who now had access to massive amounts of real-time operational data found their monthly financial reports to be irrelevant. But one enterprising department manager saw things differently. He created a daily income statement. Each day, he estimated the value of the output from the production process using estimated market prices and subtracted the expenses of raw materials, energy, and capital consumed in the production process.

The daily financial report gave operators powerful feedback and motivation and guided their quality and productivity efforts. The department head understood that it is not always possible to improve quality, reduce energy consumption, and increase throughput simultaneously; tradeoffs are usually necessary. He wanted the daily financial statement to guide those tradeoffs. The operators were empowered to make decisions that might improve quality, increase productivity, and reduce consumption of energy and materials.

That feedback and empowerment had visible results. When, for example, a hydrogen compressor failed, a supervisor on the midnight shift ordered an emergency repair crew into action.

Previously, such a failure of a noncritical component would have been reported in the shift log, where the department manager arriving for work the following morning would have to discover it. The midnight shift supervisor knew the cost of losing the hydrogen gas and made the decision that the cost of expediting the repairs would be repaid several times over by the output produced by having the compressor back on line before morning.

The department proceeded to set quality and output records. Over time, the department manager became concerned that employees would lose interest in continually improving operations. The operators continued to improve the production process. With this innovation, it was easy to see where process improvements and capital investments could generate the highest returns.


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Over the three-year period between and , a NYSE electronics company made an order-of-magnitude improvement in quality and on-time delivery performance. Did these breakthrough improvements in quality, productivity, and customer service provide substantial benefits to the company? Unfortunately not. The considerable improvements in manufacturing capabilities had not been translated into increased profitability.

Slow releases of new products and a failure to expand marketing to new and perhaps more demanding customers prevented the company from realizing the benefits of its manufacturing achievements. The operational achievements were real, but the company had failed to capitalize on them. The disparity between improved operational performance and disappointing financial measures creates frustration for senior executives. This frustration is often vented at nameless Wall Street analysts who allegedly cannot see past quarterly blips in financial performance to the underlying long-term values these executives sincerely believe they are creating in their organizations.

But the hard truth is that if improved performance fails to be reflected in the bottom line, executives should reexamine the basic assumptions of their strategy and mission.

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Instant Conversion for Historical Units of Volume

Not all long-term strategies are profitable strategies. But that view is not necessarily correct. Even an excellent set of balanced scorecard measures does not guarantee a winning strategy. Quality and cycle-time improvements can create excess capacity. Managers should be prepared to either put the excess capacity to work or else get rid of it. The excess capacity must be either used by boosting revenues or eliminated by reducing expenses if operational improvements are to be brought down to the bottom line.

As companies improve their quality and response time, they eliminate the need to build, inspect, and rework out-of-conformance products or to reschedule and expedite delayed orders. Eliminating these tasks means that some of the people who perform them are no longer needed.

Companies are understandably reluctant to lay off employees, especially since the employees may have been the source of the ideas that produced the higher quality and reduced cycle time. Layoffs are a poor reward for past improvement and can damage the morale of remaining workers, curtailing further improvement. But companies will not realize all the financial benefits of their improvements until their employees and facilities are working to capacity—or the companies confront the pain of downsizing to eliminate the expenses of the newly created excess capacity.

If executives fully understood the consequences of their quality and cycle-time improvement programs, they might be more aggressive about using the newly created capacity. To capitalize on this self-created new capacity, however, companies must expand sales to existing customers, market existing products to entirely new customers who are now accessible because of the improved quality and delivery performance , and increase the flow of new products to the market.

These actions can generate added revenues with only modest increases in operating expenses. Periodic financial statements remind executives that improved quality, response time, productivity, or new products benefit the company only when they are translated into improved sales and market share, reduced operating expenses, or higher asset turnover.

Ideally, companies should specify how improvements in quality, cycle time, quoted lead times, delivery, and new product introduction will lead to higher market share, operating margins, and asset turnover or to reduced operating expenses. Units of capacity are the SI litre and its derived units, and Imperial units such as gill , pint , gallon , and others.

Units of volume are the cubes of units of length. In other systems the conversion is not trivial; the capacity of a vehicle's fuel tank is rarely stated in cubic feet, for example, but in gallons an imperial gallon fills a volume of 0. The density of an object is defined as the ratio of the mass to the volume. Specific volume is a concept important in thermodynamics where the volume of a working fluid is often an important parameter of a system being studied.

The volume integral in cylindrical coordinates is. Let the radius be r and the height be h which is 2 r for the sphere , then the volume of cone is. The volume of a sphere is the integral of an infinite number of infinitesimally small circular disks of thickness dx. The calculation for the volume of a sphere with center 0 and radius r is as follows.

The radius of the circular disks, defined such that the x-axis cuts perpendicularly through them, is. The volume of the sphere consists of layers of infinitesimally thin spherical shells, and the sphere volume is equal to. The cone is a type of pyramidal shape. The fundamental equation for pyramids, one-third times base times altitude, applies to cones as well.

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However, using calculus, the volume of a cone is the integral of an infinite number of infinitesimally thin circular disks of thickness dx. The calculation for the volume of a cone of height h , whose base is centered at 0, 0, 0 with radius r , is as follows. In differential geometry , a branch of mathematics , a volume form on a differentiable manifold is a differential form of top degree i. A manifold has a volume form if and only if it is orientable.

An orientable manifold has infinitely many volume forms, since multiplying a volume form by a non-vanishing function yields another volume form. On non-orientable manifolds, one may instead define the weaker notion of a density. Integrating the volume form gives the volume of the manifold according to that form. An oriented pseudo-Riemannian manifold has a natural volume form.

In local coordinates , it can be expressed as. In thermodynamics , the volume of a system is an important extensive parameter for describing its thermodynamic state. The specific volume , an intensive property , is the system's volume per unit of mass.