e-book Effects of Climate Change and Variability on Agricultural Production Systems

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Adelekan I, Fregene T.

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Key Points

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Crops grown in the United States are critical for the food supply here and around the world. For any particular crop, the effect of increased temperature will depend on the crop's optimal temperature for growth and reproduction. Conversely, if the higher temperature exceeds a crop's optimum temperature, yields will decline. Livestock locations in the continental United States. Americans consume more than 36 million metric tons of meat and poultry annually.

American fishermen catch or harvest five million metric tons of fish and shellfish each year. Climate change may worsen these stresses. In particular, temperature changes could lead to significant impacts. This map shows the annual centers of biomass for three species in the northeastern United States from to Dots are shaded from light to dark to show change over time.

Exit Click the image to view a larger version. The ranges of many fish and shellfish species may change. In waters off the northeastern United States, several economically important species have shifted northward since the late s. In addition to warming, the world's oceans are gradually becoming more acidic due to increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide CO 2.

Projected impacts of climate changes on agriculture

Increasing acidity could harm shellfish by weakening their shells, which are created by removing calcium from seawater. This diagram shows the impact pathway of carbon dioxide emissions on the shellfish market.

Pastoral Farming

Carbon dioxide is absorbed by oceans, resulting in ocean acidification. Acidification reduces the size and abundance of shellfish, which in turn leads to decreased harvest and eventually to changes in prices for consumers. Climate change is very likely to affect food security at the global, regional, and local level. Climate change can disrupt food availability, reduce access to food, and affect food quality.

Increases in the frequency and severity extreme weather events can also interrupt food delivery, and resulting spikes in food prices after extreme events are expected to be more frequent in the future. Increasing temperatures can contribute to spoilage and contamination. Internationally , these effects of climate change on agriculture and food supply are likely to be similar to those seen in the United States. However, other stressors such as population growth may magnify the effects of climate change on food security. In developing countries, adaptation options like changes in crop-management or ranching practices, or improvements to irrigation are more limited than in the United States and other industrialized nations.

For example, the food transportation system in the United States frequently moves large volumes of grain by water. This drought resulted in significant food and economic losses due to reductions in barge traffic, the volume of goods carried, and the number of Americans employed by the tugboat industry.

The impact of climatic variability and climate change on arabic coffee crop in Brazil

The drought was immediately followed by flooding throughout the Mississippi in the spring of , which also resulted in disruptions of barge traffic and food transport. Impacts to the global food supply concern the United States because food shortages can cause humanitarian crises and national security concerns. They also can increase domestic food prices.