Depressions resulting in part from laissez faire capitalism and mercantilism led to many European nations turning to protectionism in order to keep competing between themselves. World Wars erupted when their rivalry got too intense and destructive. The American-funded rebuilt Europe, and even the emerging Asian Tigers , all followed protectionist measures, and once stable moved towards free markets. It seems difficult to get the right balance between deregulation and protectionism especially between developed and developing nations.
Too much deregulation of certain vital services, some of which could be seen as fundamental rights such as health and education services could lead to the inability to provide standards for the full range of the population and less protection for domestic industries against often larger or transnational corporations.
On the other hand, too much protectionism could stifle innovation and even foreign investment. The reverse could sometimes occur as well, as many other issues come into play. For example, a regime that might be protectionist but not democratic may still ignore the needs of all the people.
World markets are a source of technology and capital; it would be silly for the developing world not to exploit these opportunities. But globalization is not a short cut to development.
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Successful development strategies have always required a judicious blend of imported practices with domestic institutional innovations. Policy makers need to forge a domestic growth strategy, relying on domestic investors and domestic institutions. The most costly downside of the integrationist faith is that it is crowding out serious thinking and efforts along such lines.
Smith is quite critical of the current form of free trade and how it is pushed to poor countries:. That current free trade is just as unequal as the mercantilist trade it replaced is easily demonstrated. The structural adjustments imposed upon weak nations as necessary for free trade are the opposite policies under which every successful nation developed. That they developed under the philosophies of Adam Smith is a myth designed to hide a continuation of plunder through unequal trades. Even the likes of China, South Korea, and others became more developed using measures to protect their industries and so on, with various forms of controls.
The era of globalization can be contrasted with the development path pursued in prior decades, which was generally more inward-looking. Prior to , many countries quite deliberately adopted policies that were designed to insulate their economies from the world market in order to give their domestic industries an opportunity to advance to the point where they could be competitive.
The policy of development via import substitution, for example, was often associated with protective tariffs and subsidies for key industries. Performance requirements on foreign investment were also common. These measures often required foreign investors to employ native workers in skilled positions, and to purchase inputs from domestic producers, as ways of ensuring technology transfers.
It was also common for developing countries to sharply restrict capital flows. This was done for a number of purposes: to increase the stability of currencies, to encourage both foreign corporations and citizens holding large amounts of domestic currency to invest within the country, and to use the allocation and price of foreign exchange as part of an industrial or development policy.
But even in the 19th century, industries were protected as core countries were industrializing. He is quoted at length several times below:. Compared with the historical experience of mature and newly industrialized countries, trade policy in developing countries today appears to be unduly liberal. High tariffs in the earlier period came on top of much higher transportation and information costs than today, which provided natural protection from imports, particularly for the European offshoots. More important, the underlying rationale for tariffs in followers is the productivity gap with the more advanced economies.
For instance, even though the United States in had the same per capita income as Brazil today, it was already one of the most developed economies in the world with effectively no productivity gap with the industrial leader of the time, the United Kingdom. If history can be any indicator, developing nations of today could benefit from some aspects of protectionism until they are at the point where they have a good foundation from which to start deregulating certain aspects not always all and trade more freely with other nations and regions with a similar foundation, adhering to rules of fairness and some forms of regulation that would ultimately benefit everyone, not just greedy elites!
But, as hinted to further above, economics does not act alone. Military power and politics also come into the mix. Political and military power also exerted a strong influence over the tariff policies of independent but weak states through the so-called unequal treaties.
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This includes the gunboat diplomacy in Asia forcing Japan and China to open up their markets to the United States and Britain respectively, as well as the trade agreement imposed on the Ottoman Empire by Britain when the country defaulted on its external debt, and public finances were effectively taken over by the creditors. Since the main objective in such instances was to make the weaker states open their markets, such treaties did not always promote harmonization, particularly when the imposing countries were protectionist.
This was certainly the case when the United States forced Japan to open its markets while protecting vigorously its own. Hans Rosling, Professor of International Health, and a founder of an organization to improve use and understanding of information, Gapminder, looks at the past years of development contrasting US, UK, China, India and Japan, looking at how life expectancy an indicator of health and average income per person changed over the years.
It may be that after a certain level of industrialization, growth will begin to level. An important factor that favors greater harmonization is that once countries establish industrial dominance behind protectionist walls, they tend to advocate free trade in order to kick away the ladder from the followers and consolidate their dominance …. The United States followed a similar path a hundred years later.
Instead of developing the Third World, it is clear that the Third World dependency is a policy of the major powers, and the world leaders insist on restricting consumer buying power in the Third World as a price for what is essentially maintenance loans.
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And when the relatively poorer countries of Greece, Portugal, and Spain wanted to join the Common Market, these leaders implemented a year plan which included massive transfers of direct aid, designed to accelerate development, raise wages, regularize safety and environmental standards, and improve living conditions in poorer nations. In examining this issue, it is important to bear in mind that successful industrialization is a cumulative process involving movements from one stage to another through the establishment of new industries with higher value-added and technology contents.
In the earliest stages of economic development, production and exports consist largely of primary commodities while imports comprise mainly manufactures, both capital and labour-intensive products.
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Exporting at such a stage provides a vent for surplus; that is, it allows production to increase by making use of formerly unemployed resources because of lack of domestic demand. Without active policies designed to promote and support such activities, being rich in natural resources can be detrimental to diversification away from unprocessed commodities….
Manufactures offer better growth prospects [over commodity processing] not only because they allow for a more rapid productivity growth and expansion of production, but also because they avoid the declining terms of trade that have frustrated the growth prospects of many commodity-dependent economies. As new and more dynamic industries emerge, the traditional ones are phased out and may even be left entirely to countries at earlier stages of development. This pattern of modern industrialization has been dubbed the flying geese paradigm.
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Japan on its way to industrialization , these are not market-driven; there is policy intervention in the form of infant industry support and export promotion in an attempt to even the playing field with more advanced economies. More recently the tendency has been towards indiscriminate liberalization adopted in many low-income countries as a result of conditionality attached to adjustment lending by the Bretton Woods institutions [the World Bank and the IMF], and in some middle-income developing countries seeking access to markets in the North through bilateral or regional trade agreements.
Consequently, focussing on the needs of existing industries or taking current levels of tariffs as the basis for commitments in the WTO could subsequently present serious setbacks to technological upgrading…. Similarly an LDC can remain dependent on primary production and exports if it is denied the space to develop industries for labour-intensive manufactures.
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As shown above, developing countries do not need high tariffs for all sectors and all the time. But they should have the option of using tariffs on a selective basis as and when needed for progress in industrialization.
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They should not be expected to keep moving tariffs downward from one trade round to another, but be able to move them in both directions in different sectors in the course of industrial development. Developing countries are once again facing intense pressure to liberalize trade in industrial products even though the extravagant benefits claimed from the Uruguay Round [of trade talks] have been belied by subsequent experience.
Despite this, recent years have seen a proliferation of similar exercises, claiming large benefits from further trade liberalization for the world economy in general and for developing countries in particular. On some accounts, the incidence of gains to developing countries reaches as much as 65 per cent of the total. They are derived from computable general equilibrium CGE models based on the neoclassical paradigm of competitive equilibrium where markets [are] always clear and resources are fully employed.
These estimates do not provide a reliable guide to what might happen in reality because of two interrelated shortcomings of the CGE models:. There are more holes in free trade theory than its advocates grasp. And the benefits of free trade in practice are more limited and contingent than they acknowledge. He also argues that the World Bank's long-time push for export-led development is misguided. A more democratic world trading order is necessary and possible.
And more interventionist, self-reliant trade policies are feasible, especially if a more holistic view of economic development goals is adopted. About Wordery Wordery is one of the UK's largest online booksellers. Why should you use Wordery. Home non fiksi ilmu sosial graham dunkley free trade : myths, realities and alternatives global issues. Kode Produk: Ketersediaan: 1. His wide-ranging interests and activities include policy development work with various environmental organisations and also, over many years, with the Australian Labor Party as well as trade unions and the Labour Resource Centre.
He has travelled extensively in Europe and Asia, has had experience in project work with Community Aid Oxfam Australia , and writes for the Australian media. Layanan Pelanggan. All Rights Reserved.