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Synopsis About this title A biography of the Shoshoni Indian woman who played an important role in guiding the Lewis and Clark expedition through the Northwest Territory of the United States in Review : "As serviceable biographies, the titles have sufficient information for reports, and are lively enough for recreational reading. Buy Used Condition: Good A copy that has been read, but Learn more about this copy. Customers who bought this item also bought. When the corps reached the Pacific Ocean, all members of the expedition—including Sacagawea and Clark's black manservant York —voted on November 24 on the location for building their winter fort.
In January, when a whale 's carcass washed up onto the beach south of Fort Clatsop , Sacagawea insisted on her right to go see this "monstrous fish. On the return trip, they approached the Rocky Mountains in July On July 6, Clark recorded "The Indian woman informed me that she had been in this plain frequently and knew it well She said we would discover a gap in the mountains in our direction Later, this was chosen as the optimal route for the Northern Pacific Railway to cross the continental divide. While Sacagawea has been depicted as a guide for the expedition,  she is recorded as providing direction in only a few instances.
Her work as an interpreter certainly helped the party to negotiate with the Shoshone; however, her greatest value to the mission may have been simply her presence during the arduous journey, which demonstrated the peaceful intent of the expedition. While traveling through what is now Franklin County , Washington , Clark noted, "The Indian woman confirmed those people of our friendly intentions, as no woman ever accompanies a war party of Indians in this quarter," and, "the wife of Shabono our interpeter we find reconsiles all the Indians, as to our friendly intentions a woman with a party of men is a token of peace.
ISBN 13: 9781567661668
You have been a long time with me and conducted your Self in Such a manner as to gain my friendship, your woman who accompanied you that long dangerous and fatigueing rout to the Pacific Ocian and back diserved a greater reward for her attention and services on that rout than we had in our power to give her at the Mandans. As to your little Son my boy Pomp you well know my fondness of him and my anxiety to take him and raise him as my own child If you are desposed to accept either of my offers to you and will bring down you Son your famn [femme, woman] Janey had best come along with you to take care of the boy untill I get him After the expedition, Charbonneau and Sacagawea spent three years among the Hidatsa before accepting William Clark's invitation to settle in St.
Louis, Missouri , in They entrusted Jean-Baptiste's education to Clark, who enrolled the young man in the Saint Louis Academy boarding school. Sacagawea gave birth to a daughter, Lizette , sometime after According to Bonnie "Spirit Wind-Walker" Butterfield, historical documents suggest Sacagawea died in of an unknown sickness:.
He recorded that Sacagawea " She left a fine infant girl". A few months later, 15 men were killed in a Native attack on Fort Lisa , then located at the mouth of the Bighorn River. Toussaint Charbonneau was mistakenly thought to have been killed at this time, but he apparently lived to at least age He had signed over formal custody of his son to William Clark in An adoption document made in the Orphans Court Records in St.
Louis, Missouri, states, 'On August 11, , William Clark became the guardian of 'Tousant Charbonneau, a boy about ten years, and Lizette Charbonneau, a girl about one year old. The last recorded document citing Sacagawea's existence appears in William Clark's original notes written between and He lists the names of each of the expedition members and their last known whereabouts. For Sacagawea he writes: "Se car ja we au— Dead. Some Native American oral traditions relate that rather than dying in , Sacagawea left her husband Charbonneau, crossed the Great Plains , and married into a Comanche tribe.
Sacagawea | Biography, Death, & Facts | belgedotdicthots.ga
The question of Sacagawea's final resting place caught the attention of national suffragists seeking voting rights for women, according to author Raymond Wilson. Interest in Sacajawea peaked and controversy intensified when Dr. Grace Raymond Hebard , professor of political economy at the University of Wyoming in Laramie and an active supporter of the Nineteenth Amendment , campaigned for federal legislation to erect an edifice honoring Sacajawea's death in In , Dr.
Eastman visited many different Native American tribes, to interview elderly individuals who might have known or heard of Sacagawea, and learned of a Shoshone woman at the Wind River Reservation with the Comanche name Porivo chief woman.
Some of the people he interviewed said that she spoke of a long journey wherein she had helped white men, and that she had a silver Jefferson peace medal of the type carried by the Lewis and Clark Expedition. He found a Comanche woman called Tacutine who said that Porivo was her grandmother. She had married into a Comanche tribe and had a number of children, including Tacutine's father Ticannaf. Porivo left the tribe after her husband Jerk-Meat was killed. According to these narratives, Porivo lived for some time at Fort Bridger in Wyoming with her sons Bazil and Baptiste, who each knew several languages, including English and French.
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Eventually, she found her way back to the Lemhi Shoshone at the Wind River Indian Reservation , where she was recorded as "Bazil's mother". It was Eastman's conclusion that Porivo was Sacagawea. The belief that Sacagawea lived to old age and died in Wyoming was widely disseminated in the United States in the biography Sacajawea by University of Wyoming professor and historian Grace Raymond Hebard. Critics have called into question Hebard's 30 years of research, which led to the biography of the Shoshone woman. Sacagawea gave birth to a daughter, Lizette Charbonneau, sometime after However, there is no later record of Lizette among Clark's papers.
It is believed that she died in childhood. Sacagawea's son Jean Baptiste Charbonneau continued a restless and adventurous life. He carried lifelong celebrity status as the infant who went with the explorers to the Pacific Ocean and back. There, Jean-Baptiste spent six years living among royalty , while learning four languages and fathering a child in Germany named Anton Fries. After his infant son died, Jean-Baptiste came back from Europe in to live the life of a Western frontiersman. He became a gold miner and a hotel clerk and in led a group of Mormons to California. He disliked the way Indians were treated in the Missions and left to become a hotel clerk in Auburn, California , once the center of gold rush activity.
After working six years in Auburn, the restless Jean-Baptiste left in search of riches in the gold mines of Montana. He was 61 years old, and the trip was too much for him. He became ill with pneumonia and died in a remote area near Danner, Oregon , on May 16, A long-running controversy has surrounded the correct spelling, pronunciation, and etymology of the woman's name; however, linguists working on Hidatsa since the s have always considered the name's Hidatsa etymology essentially indisputable.
The name has several spelling traditions in English. The origin of each tradition is described in the following sections. Lewis and Clark's original journals mention Sacagawea by name seventeen times, spelled eight different ways, each time with a "g". The spelling Sacagawea was established in as the proper usage in government documents by the United States Bureau of American Ethnology , and is the spelling adopted by the United States Mint for use with the dollar coin , as well as the United States Board on Geographic Names and the U.
National Park Service. The spelling is used by a large number of historical scholars. Sakakawea is the official spelling of her name according to the Three Affiliated Tribes , which include the Hidatsa , and is widely used throughout North Dakota where she is considered a state heroine , notably in the naming of Lake Sakakawea , the extensive reservoir of Garrison Dam on the Missouri River. Her Hidatsa name, which Charbonneau stated meant "Bird Woman," should be spelled "Tsakakawias" according to the foremost Hidatsa language authority, Dr. Washington Matthews. When this name is anglicized for easy pronunciation, it becomes Sakakawea, "Sakaka" meaning "bird" and "wea" meaning "woman.
The spelling authorized for the use of federal agencies by the United States Geographic Board is Sacagawea. Although not closely following Hidatsa spelling, the pronunciation is quite similar and the Geographic Board acknowledged the name to be a Hidatsa word meaning "Bird Woman. Nevertheless, Irving W. To the contrary, this spelling traces its origin neither through a personal connection with her nor in any primary literature of the expedition.
It has been independently constructed from two Hidatsa Indian words found in the dictionary Ethnography and Philology of the Hidatsa Indians , published by the Government Printing Office. Washington Matthews, 65 years following Sacagawea's death, the words appear verbatim in the dictionary as "tsa-ka-ka, noun; a bird," and "mia [wia, bia], noun; a woman. The use of this spelling almost certainly originated from the use of the "j" spelling by Nicholas Biddle , who annotated the Lewis and Clark Expedition's journals for publication in It is likely Dye used Biddle's secondary source for the spelling, and her highly popular book made it ubiquitous throughout the United States previously most non-scholars had never even heard of Sacagawea.
Rozina George, great-great-great-great-granddaughter of Cameahwait , says the Agaidika tribe of Lemhi Shoshone do not recognize the spelling or pronunciation Sacagawea , and schools and other memorials erected in the area surrounding her birthplace use the spelling Sacajawea. The Lemhi Shoshone call her Sacajawea.